Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol Exert Antimicrobial Activity without Compromising Skin Microbiota

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are two pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. Their antimicrobial activity needs further elucidation, particularly for CBG, as reports on this cannabinoid are scarce. We investigated CBD and CBG’s antimicrobial potential, including their ability to inhibit the formation and cause the removal of biofilms. Our results demonstrate that both molecules present activity against planktonic bacteria and biofilms, with both cannabinoids removing mature biofilms at concentrations below the determined minimum inhibitory concentrations. We report for the first time minimum inhibitory and lethal concentrations for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ranging from 400 to 3180 µM), as well as the ability of cannabinoids to inhibit Staphylococci adhesion to keratinocytes, with CBG demonstrating higher activity than CBD. The value of these molecules as preservative ingredients for cosmetics was also assayed, with CBG meeting the USP 51 challenge test criteria for antimicrobial effectiveness. Further, the exact formulation showed no negative impact on skin microbiota. Our results suggest that phytocannabinoids can be promising topical antimicrobial agents when searching for novel therapeutic candidates for different skin conditions. Additional research is needed to clarify phytocannabinoids’ mechanisms of action, aiming to develop practical applications in dermatological use.


Keywords:

antimicrobial activity; biofilm; cannabidiol; cannabigerol; cosmetic preservative; keratinocytes; skin microbiota.

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