Trends of the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Cannabis Use Disorder in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990-2019: Results from the Disease Burden Study 2019

Cannabis is the fourth psychoactive substance to be legalized which are of far-reaching significance to the world. We analyzed data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and calculated the disease burden of CUD in 204 countries and territories and 21 regions over the past three decades. We reported disease burden due to CUD in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), age-standardized rate (ASR), estimated annual percentage change (EAPC), and analyzed associations between the burden of CUD and sociodemographic index (SDI) quintiles. Globally, the number of incidence cases of CUD was estimated to be increasing by 32.3% from 1990 to 2019 and males are nearly double higher than that of female. DALYs increase 38.6% from 1990. Young people aged 20-24 years old with cannabis use disorder have the highest DALYs in 2019, followed by those younger than 20 years old. India, Canada, USA, Qatar, Kenya, and high SDI quintile areas showed a high burden of disease. Nearly 200 million individuals are cannabis users worldwide, and CUD is a notable condition of GBD. The global cultivation of cannabis, rooted in different cultures, diversified access to cannabis, legalization in controversy, the promotion of medical cannabis, and many other factors promote the global cannabis industry is constantly updated and upgraded. It deserves more discussion in the future in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, socioeconomics, law, and policy improvement.

Supplementary information:

The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11469-022-00999-4.


Age-standardized rate; Cannabis use disorder; Disability-adjusted life years; Estimated annual percentage change; Global burden of disease.

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