Severe Cannabis use is Associated with Complications and Prolonged Length of Stay in Bariatric Surgery


Purpose:

In the United States, recreational and medicinal cannabis use has continually increased in recent years, including in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, the effects of cannabis use on morbidity and mortality after bariatric surgery are uncertain, and the literature is limited by a paucity of studies. This study intends to evaluate the effects of cannabis use disorder on outcomes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.


Materials and methods:

The National Inpatient Sample 2016-2019 was queried for patients ≥ 18 years who underwent roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), or adjustable gastric band (AGB) surgery. Cannabis use disorder was identified using ICD-10 coding. Three outcomes were evaluated: medical complications, in-hospital mortality, and length of stay. Logistic regression was used to evaluate effects of cannabis use disorder on medical complications and in-hospital mortality, and linear regression for length of stay. All models controlled for race, age, sex, income, procedure type, and various medical comorbidities.


Results:

A total of 713,290 patients were included in this study, with 1,870 (0.26%) having cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was associated with medical complications (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.31-3.82; P = 0.003) and longer lengths of stay (β: 1.3; SE: 0.297; P < 0.001), but not in-hospital mortality (OR: 3.29; CI: 0.94-11.5); P = 0.062).


Conclusions:

Severe cannabis use was associated with higher risk for complications and extended length of stay. Future investigations are needed to better elucidate the relationship between cannabis use and bariatric surgery, including effects of dosage, chronicity, and method of ingestion.


Keywords:

Bariatric Surgery; Cannabis Use; NIS; Outcomes.

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