Hop Latent Viroid: A Hidden Threat to the Cannabis Industry


doi: 10.3390/v15030681.


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Charith Raj Adkar-Purushothama et al.




Hop latent viroid (HLVd) is the biggest concern for cannabis and hop growers worldwide. Although most HLVd-infected plants remain asymptomatic, research on hops has demonstrated a decrease in both the α-bitter acid and terpene content of hop cones, which affects their economic value. The HLVd-associated “dudding” or “duds” disease of cannabis was first reported in 2019 in California. Since then, the disease has become widespread in cannabis-growing facilities across North America. Although severe yield loss associated with duds disease has been recorded, little scientific information is available to growers in order to contain HLVd. Consequently, this review aims to summarise all of the scientific information available on HLVd so as to be able to understand the effect of HLVd on yield loss, cannabinoid content, terpene profile, disease management and inform crop protection strategies.


HLVd; cannabis disease; cannabis pathogen; dudding; duds; hop latent viroid; hop viroid; viroid; viroid disease.

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