Review of the oral toxicity of cannabidiol (CBD)


doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113799.

Online ahead of print.


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Jeremy Gingrich et al.

Food Chem Toxicol.



Information in the published literature indicates that consumption of CBD can result in developmental and reproductive toxicity and hepatotoxicity outcomes in animal models. The trend of CBD-induced male reproductive toxicity has been observed in phylogenetically disparate organisms, from invertebrates to non-human primates. CBD has also been shown to inhibit various cytochrome P450 enzymes and certain efflux transporters, resulting in the potential for drug-drug interactions and cellular accumulation of xenobiotics that are normally transported out of the cell. The mechanisms of CBD-mediated toxicity are not fully understood, but they may involve disruption of critical metabolic pathways and liver enzyme functions, receptor-specific binding activity, disruption of testosterone steroidogenesis, inhibition of reuptake and degradation of endocannabinoids, and the triggering of oxidative stress. The toxicological profile of CBD raises safety concerns, especially for long term consumption by the general population.


Food safety; Hepatotoxicity; Reproductive toxicity; Review; Up to 6 total): cannabidiol; cannabis.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of competing interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

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