Analysis of Cannabinoids in Biological Specimens: An Update


. 2023 Jan 28;20(3):2312.

doi: 10.3390/ijerph20032312.


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Mónica Antunes et al.

Int J Environ Res Public Health.



Cannabinoids are still the most consumed drugs of abuse worldwide. Despite being considered less harmful to human health, particularly if compared with opiates or cocaine, cannabis consumption has important medico-legal and public health consequences. For this reason, the development and optimization of sensitive analytical methods that allow the determination of these compounds in different biological specimens is important, involving relevant efforts from laboratories. This paper will discuss cannabis consumption; toxicokinetics, the most detected compounds in biological samples; and characteristics of the latter. In addition, a comprehensive review of extraction methods and analytical tools available for cannabinoid detection in selected biological specimens will be reviewed. Important issues such as pitfalls and cut-off values will be considered.


analysis; biological specimens; cannabinoids; toxicology.

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